Comanche Women Zusammenfassung

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Comanche women

Comanche ChiefSilver Brooch aka Tosh-A-Wah - ca. - By W. S. Soule, Fort Sill, I.T. "He wears a Jeff Davis campaign hat, a style discarded by the military​. These rare and beautiful vintage portraits of Native American girls were taken between the late s and the turn of the 19th Century, yet despite being over a​. Comanche Women Mehr dazu. Comanche Women Find this Pin and more on indianer by Karin Theimer. Tags. Ureinwohner Amerikas.

Among the transportable goods the Comanche acquired on these raids were members of other tribes or citizens from Mexico or the United States.

These high-ranking men were from among the elite leadership of each tribe. A man could rise to such rank by exhibiting prowess in combat.

The Comanche were hunters and gatherers and, as was often the case with such cultures, women were in charge of the gathering. Since the Comanche were a polygamous society, one or more women might be attached to a single man and care for him by collecting nuts, berries and other wild vegetation near their camp.

Women prepared meals for their men with the food they gathered and the meat brought home by hunters. Women were also responsible for the home, which was usually a tee pee made form hides and wood.

They did not simply clean the home. Women had to actually build the tee pee, even if that meant carrying heavy wood and erecting the structure themselves.

Comanche raids for material goods, horses, and captives carried them as far south as Durango in present-day Mexico.

One of the best-known Comanche leaders, Quanah Parker , belonged to the Quahadi band. In the midth century the Penateka, a southern band, were settled on a reservation in Indian Territory now Oklahoma.

The northern segment of the tribe, however, continued the struggle to protect their realm from settlers. In Col. In the Comanche and their allies the Kiowa signed a treaty with the United States , which granted them what is now western Oklahoma , from the Red River north to the Cimarron.

Upon the failure of the United States to abide by the terms of the treaty, hostilities resumed until , when, in agreements made at Medicine Lodge Creek in Kansas , the Comanche, Kiowa, and Kiowa Apache undertook to settle on a reservation in Oklahoma.

The government was unable to keep squatters off the land promised to the tribes, and it was after this date that some of the most violent encounters between U.

According to the U. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Bianca threw a blanket over her head and began wailing, but Dot stoically awaited his fate.

The Indians were impressed by his courage and finally cut him free, believing that he would make a fine warrior.

Brother and sister were then separated in different Comanche camps. Dot caught on quickly and seemed to be enjoying himself. Dot was taught how to shoot by being given a pistol with live ammunition, and told to fire at Persummy as the chief went galloping by on his horse.

He got to accompany the Indians on two raids into Mexico, and on the last one they killed seven Mexicans and captured two girls and one boy. Dot quickly learned the fate of most female captives.

Like his sister, Dot seemed to easily fit into Comanche society. He enjoyed the food. She scooped every bit of the milk out of its stomach just as quickly as she could and gave it to the children.

It was the sweetest stuff I ever tasted, and was thick like our gelatin. Although Dot was in training to become a warrior, the Comanche women tried to use him as a slave, assembling the tepees, carrying wood and water, and cooking.

Dot, because he was used to obeying his mother, did what they told him. Finally, other young men chastised him, telling him that he didn?

So, one day Dot refused to move when an old woman ordered him to get firewood.

Comanche Women

Harris, LaDonna. Garland Pub. Ramer, Alexis Manaster. Comanche Texts. Hyde, George E. Trinda trång Wallace. Oklahoma City: Institute.

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Bianca was given to the Comanche woman Tekwashana, a young widow with no children. That night there was a great feast, and Bianca watched as the Comanche women dressed.

She thought they paid little attention to their hair, some of them hacking it crudely off, but they carefully painted their faces in red and yellow.

The band Bianca was with consisted of about 35 people in about eight lodges. She slept beside Tekwashana on a bed of dry grass, blankets and buffalo robes.

As it was late fall, the Comanches kept a fire burning in the tepee all night, with a flap open at the top to let the smoke out. Meals were most always meat, and Bianca easily adjusted to the diet.

They seemed to have no fixed hours, but ate anytime they were hungry. Tekwashana gave Bianca brass bracelets, silver earrings and an elaborate headdress of cloth and shiny metals to hold back her hair when she went riding.

Bianca had many tedious chores to do, but was still young enough to escape some of the backbreaking work the Comanche women had to bear.

Dot had a different experience from his sister. Captured by Persummy, he rode near Bianca for a few days until one night when he tried to escape.

Bianca threw a blanket over her head and began wailing, but Dot stoically awaited his fate. The Indians were impressed by his courage and finally cut him free, believing that he would make a fine warrior.

Brother and sister were then separated in different Comanche camps. Petri's sketches and watercolors gave witness to the friendly relationships between the Germans and various local Native American tribes.

In , another treaty was signed in San Saba, between the United States government and a number of local tribes, among which were the Comanches. This treaty was named for the nearest military fort, which was Fort Martin Scott.

The treaty was never officially ratified by any level of government and was binding only on the part of the Native Americans. One of the most famous captives in Texas was a German boy named Herman Lehmann.

He had been kidnapped by the Apaches , only to escape and be rescued by the Comanches. Lehmann became the adoptive son of Quanah Parker.

On August 26, , Quanah Parker provided a legal affidavit verifying Lehman's life as his adopted son — Entering the Western economy was a challenge for the Comanche in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Many tribal members were defrauded of whatever remained of their land and possessions. Appointed paramount chief by the United States government, Chief Quanah Parker campaigned vigorously for better deals for his people, meeting with Washington politicians frequently; and helped manage land for the tribe.

Parker became wealthy as a cattleman. Parker also campaigned for the Comanches' permission to practice the Native American Church religious rites, such as the usage of peyote , which was condemned by European Americans.

I do not think this legislature should interfere with a man's religion, also these people should be allowed to retain this health restorer.

These healthy gentleman before you use peyote and those that do not use it are not so healthy. During World War II , many Comanche left the traditional tribal lands in Oklahoma to seek jobs and more opportunities in the cities of California and the Southwest.

About half of the Comanche population still lives in Oklahoma, centered on the town of Lawton. Recently, an minute silent film was "rediscovered", titled The Daughter of Dawn.

It features a cast of more than Comanche and Kiowa. If a woman went into labor while the band was in camp, she was moved to a tipi , or a brush lodge if it was summer.

One or more of the older women assisted as midwives. Men were not allowed inside the tipi during or immediately after the delivery. First, the midwives softened the earthen floor of the tipi and dug two holes.

One of the holes was for heating water and the other for the afterbirth. One or two stakes were driven into the ground near the expectant mother's bedding for her to grip during the pain of labor.

After the birth, the midwives hung the umbilical cord on a hackberry tree. The people believed that if the umbilical cord was not disturbed before it rotted, the baby would live a long and prosperous life.

The newborn was swaddled and remained with its mother in the tipi for a few days. The baby was placed in a cradleboard , and the mother went back to work.

She could easily carry the cradleboard on her back, or prop it against a tree where the baby could watch her while she collected seeds or roots.

Cradleboards consisted of a flat board to which a basket was attached. The latter was made from rawhide straps, or a leather sheath that laced up the front.

With soft, dry moss as a diaper, the young one was safely tucked into the leather pocket. During cold weather, the baby was wrapped in blankets, and then placed in the cradleboard.

The baby remained in the cradleboard for about ten months; then it was allowed to crawl around. Both girls and boys were welcomed into the band, but boys were favored.

If the baby was a boy, one of the midwives informed the father or grandfather, "It's your close friend". Families might paint a flap on the tipi to tell the rest of the tribe that they had been strengthened with another warrior.

Sometimes a man named his child, but mostly the father asked a medicine man or another man of distinction to do so.

He did this in the hope of his child living a long and productive life. During the public naming ceremony, the medicine man lit his pipe and offered smoke to the heavens, earth, and each of the four directions.

He prayed that the child would remain happy and healthy. He then lifted the child to symbolize its growing up and announced the child's name four times.

He held the child a little higher each time he said the name. It was believed that the child's name foretold its future; even a weak or sick child could grow up to be a great warrior, hunter, and raider if given a name suggesting courage and strength.

Girls were usually named after one of their father's relatives, but the name was selected by the mother.

As children grew up they also acquired nicknames at different points in their lives, to express some aspect of their lives. The Comanche looked on their children as their most precious gift.

Children were rarely punished. Occasionally, old people donned sheets and frightened disobedient boys and girls. Children were also told about Big Maneater Owl Pia Mupitsi , who lived in a cave on the south side of the Wichita Mountains and ate bad children at night.

Children learned from example, by observing and listening to their parents and others in the band. As soon as she was old enough to walk, a girl followed her mother about the camp and played at the daily tasks of cooking and making clothing.

She was also very close to her mother's sisters, who were called not aunt but pia , meaning mother. She was given a little deerskin doll, which she took with her everywhere.

She learned to make all the clothing for the doll. A boy identified not only with his father but with his father's family, as well as with the bravest warriors in the band.

He learned to ride a horse before he could walk. By the time he was four or five, he was expected to be able to skillfully handle a horse.

When he was five or six, he was given a small bow and arrows. Often, a boy was taught to ride and shoot by his grandfather, since his father and other warriors were on raids and hunts.

His grandfather also taught him about his own boyhood and the history and legends of the Comanche. As the boy grew older, he joined the other boys to hunt birds.

He eventually ranged farther from camp looking for better game to kill. Encouraged to be skillful hunters, boys learned the signs of the prairie as they learned to patiently and quietly stalk game.

They became more self-reliant, yet, by playing together as a group, also formed the strong bonds and cooperative spirit that they would need when they hunted and raided.

Boys were highly respected because they would become warriors and might die young in battle. As he approached manhood, a boy went on his first buffalo hunt.

If he made a kill, his father honored him with a feast. Only after he had proven himself on a buffalo hunt was a young man allowed to go to war. When he was ready to become a warrior, at about age fifteen or sixteen, a young man first "made his medicine" by going on a vision quest a rite of passage.

Following this quest, his father gave the young man a good horse to ride into battle and another mount for the trail.

If he had proved himself as a warrior, a Give Away Dance might be held in his honor. As drummers faced east, the honored boy and other young men danced.

His parents, along with his other relatives and the people in the band, threw presents at his feet — especially blankets and horses symbolized by sticks.

Anyone might snatch one of the gifts for themselves, although those with many possessions refrained; they did not want to appear greedy.

People often gave away all their belongings during these dances, providing for others in the band, but leaving themselves with nothing.

Girls learned to gather healthy berries, nuts, and roots. They carried water and collected wood, and when about twelve years old learned to cook meals, make tipis, sew clothing, prepare hides, and perform other tasks essential to becoming a wife and mother.

They were then considered ready to be married. During the 19th century, the traditional Comanche burial custom was to wrap the deceased's body in a blanket and place it on a horse, behind a rider, who would then ride in search of an appropriate burial place, such as a secure cave.

After entombment, the rider covered the body with stones and returned to camp, where the mourners burned all the deceased's possessions. The primary mourner slashed his arms to express his grief.

The Quahada band followed this custom longer than other bands and buried their relatives in the Wichita Mountains. Christian missionaries persuaded Comanche people to bury their dead in coffins in graveyards, [48] which is the practice today.

When they lived with the Shoshone, the Comanche mainly used dog-drawn travois for transportation. Later, they acquired horses from other tribes, such as the Pueblo, and from the Spaniards.

Since horses are faster, easier to control and able to carry more, this helped with their hunting and warfare and made moving camp easier. Larger dwellings were made due to the ability to pull and carry more belongings.

Being herbivores, horses were also easier to feed than dogs, since meat was a valuable resource. A Comanche man's wealth was measured by the size of his horse herd.

Horses were prime targets to steal during raids; often raids were conducted specifically to capture horses. Often horse herds numbering in the hundreds were stolen by Comanche during raids against other Indian nations, Spanish, Mexicans, and later from the ranches of Texans.

Horses were used for warfare with the Comanche being considered to be among the finest light cavalry and mounted warriors in history.

The Comanche sheathed their tipis with a covering made of buffalo hides sewn together. To prepare the buffalo hides, women first spread them on the ground, then scraped away the fat and flesh with blades made from bones or antlers, and left them in the sun.

When the hides were dry, they scraped off the thick hair, and then soaked them in water. After several days, they vigorously rubbed the hides in a mixture of animal fat, brains, and liver to soften the hides.

The hides were made even more supple by further rinsing and working back and forth over a rawhide thong. Finally, they were smoked over a fire, which gave the hides a light tan color.

To finish the tipi covering, women laid the tanned hides side by side and stitched them together. As many as 22 hides could be used, but 14 was the average.

When finished, the hide covering was tied to a pole and raised, wrapped around the cone-shaped frame, and pinned together with pencil-sized wooden skewers.

Two wing-shaped flaps at the top of the tipi were turned back to make an opening, which could be adjusted to keep out the moisture and held pockets of insulating air.

With a fire pit in the center of the earthen floor, the tipis stayed warm in the winter. In the summer, the bottom edges of the tipis could be rolled up to let cool breezes in.

Cooking was done outside during the hot weather. Tipis were very practical homes for itinerant people.

Working together, women could quickly set them up or take them down. An entire Comanche band could be packed and chasing a buffalo herd within about 20 minutes.

The Comanche women were the ones who did the most work with food processing and preparation. The Comanche were initially hunter-gatherers.

When they lived in the Rocky Mountains , during their migration to the Great Plains, both men and women shared the responsibility of gathering and providing food.

When the Comanche reached the plains, hunting came to predominate. Hunting was considered a male activity and was a principal source of prestige.

For meat, the Comanche hunted buffalo , elk , black bear , pronghorn , and deer. If rifles were available, the arts of marksmanship had to be learned, as well.

Horse-mounted Comanche men went on raids that extended as far south as the jungles of Mexico. On these raids, which might last for months, men occupied themselves with acquiring the transportable goods of whichever people they fought.

Among the transportable goods the Comanche acquired on these raids were members of other tribes or citizens from Mexico or the United States. These high-ranking men were from among the elite leadership of each tribe.

A man could rise to such rank by exhibiting prowess in combat. The Comanche were hunters and gatherers and, as was often the case with such cultures, women were in charge of the gathering.

Since the Comanche were a polygamous society, one or more women might be attached to a single man and care for him by collecting nuts, berries and other wild vegetation near their camp.

Women prepared meals for their men with the food they gathered and the meat brought home by hunters.

Comanche Women

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